الرئيسية / تربويات / Improving teaching practices through Action research at primary school teachers

Improving teaching practices through Action research at primary school teachers

Dr. Hamdy Ahmed Mahmoud Hamed
Assistant professor Of Curriculum and Methods Of Teaching
Faculty Of Education – Helwan University
Arab Republic of Egypt

Abstract:
Calls recently appeared to support an active role for the teacher in the educational decision making through submission of proposals and perceptions of phenomena experienced by schools, and these proposals come only if the teacher study these phenomena, track and a statement of strength and weakness and provide alternatives points and this means that the teacher that the conduct research in the field and in the classroom primarily appeared the name of “teacher researcher” in the literature of many countries.
Since this study confirms the importance of improving teaching practices and competencies necessary for teachers of the fifth / sixth grade and in Social Studies of what those skills and teaching practices of great importance in the functioning of the educational process in the classroom and preparing a generation capable of future challenges, led by the teacher conscious and example.
The importance of the theoretical part of the study to enrich the study and definition of the relevant educational process research procedural and its role and that it is time to apply this type of search in all Egyptian schools and focus on the skills and teaching practices in the classroom in the Social Studies even make them material attractive study to examine them more than to be repulsive them.
The study resulted in that the teachers should focus on the role of action research in the treatment of problems of the teacher and it gives him the self-confidence in educational decision-making, where the existing teacher addressed the research of many teaching skills and practices that were carried out after reflection and Altvakr paid by repeatedly process and again during the monitoring of all problems in the classroom with his disciples during his performance in social studies for students in the fifth grade / sixth the primary.
Where the sample left daily notes on teaching practices, which was going through in the classroom with his students while teaching, and also monitoring for a number of teaching activities carried out with his disciples in a sufficient description of the position of teaching as a phenomenon educational and comment on them, and then began Statistics reflection process, which comprise of axes: What happened? , How I feel about what happened? And what I learned from this situation? , Then finally the newspaper reflection structure, which came axes as follows: What did you do? , What I learned then finally how they can apply what I’ve learned? , The sample has documented many of the educational practices and teaching skills, and offered to the strengths and weaknesses and addressed her problem in those practices are weak and teaching skills.
The researcher teacher perceptions and proposals of value with the addition of some procedural proposals -qam out of helped him and guided him in the search – in order to improve teacher performance and development of the educational process after the turn, the teacher in the research, this addressed the proposals and recommendations of many of the important points in the action research on the level of schools Republic, especially in basic education.

Introduction:
The action research alternative for Educational Research, which was based on the study of other research, also from the applied research directed towards solving the problems faced by the workers where the practitioner examines the performance and scalability by identifying the problems faced by both the educational, social or psychological problems and will solve them using appropriate scientific methodology. It believes such research to the supervisor best resident to experience the educational and encourages him to develop educational theories based on practices, and under this research conditions and practices that can researcher teacher make a difference where in the desired direction and not exposed to aspects of that supervisor can not interfere with them or change them as it is possible to be the study of the processes and methods used in the field of work in a scientific manner in order to be tested and increase the effectiveness and discover new ways more convenient, “which is described as a way of working which helps us to recognize the things that we believe in, and then work systematically to make these things that we believe in the truth.” (Mohammed Eldridge, 2003).
And the role of action research is to improve the educational process in the school environment scope and provides this research quick solutions to fix the problems that need to speed in the solution and only worsened as well as eliminates Find the gap between traditional research and the practice of the teacher in the classroom through knowledge and assets of pedagogy to solve problems the application, and can be developed teacher performance and the exchange of experiences and skills among teachers in the field of teaching, and help these search teachers to recognize new developments in education, and also helps them to develop scientific thinking in the evaluation of issues, analysis and ask questions, data collection, interpretation and help Find a teacher on the development of speech and writing skills and the exploration and investigation of different sources, and improving educational methods and school management by introducing modern trends dealing with the development of this administration (Abdul Latif Hussein Haidar, 2004).
From here came this research to improve the skills and teaching practices by the teachers of the fifth / sixth grade and in Social Studies, where spotted research sample and two teachers from each semester – fifth and sixth grades Primary – teaching practices and skills they perform in the classroom during the teaching material social studies, so making it Researcher educator teacher which the objective of which is based on the teacher or the number of teachers in the educational field within the school, making for this type of research different scientific results completely for academic research carried out by researchers at the university level act Research.
To this must be on the educational departments and schools affiliated to adopt this type of research and the organization of consecutive workshops make this kind of research culture prevalent among teachers, and the condition live teacher and increase incentives in the field of work, and this leads to the treatment of many problems, in fact, educational and who sometimes indescribable Educational Research traditional.

: Background of the Problem
First, the exploratory study
The researcher conducted a prospective study to know the reality of teaching practices for teachers of fifth grade / sixth in Primary Social Studies, the study included two aspects:
1- questionnaire for mentors and teachers:
Researcher prepared a questionnaire, has been applied to a number (6) of mentors, and the number (10) of those who teach the teachers decision of social studies for students in the fifth / sixth grade number (4) of Maadi management education schools, in order to know the following:
A) the extent of being able to correct practices and teaching skills.
B) the extent of activation of practices and teaching skills while teaching social studies course for students in the fifth grade / sixth the primary.
C) the extent of the importance of activating the teaching practices while teaching social studies course for students in the fifth grade / sixth the primary.
The researcher found after the application procedure for this questionnaire to the following results:
A. confirmed rate (93.42%) of the study sample the dearth of information available to them on the practice and teaching skills.
B) confirmed rate (85.70%) of the sample study on the difficulty of activating practices and teaching skills in the classroom with the current educational problems.
C) confirmed proportion (99%) of the study sample the importance of activating practices and teaching skills in the classroom in the subject of social studies for students in the fifth grade / sixth the primary.
: 2. The personal interview with the disciples
Researcher held an open interview with a number (60) male and female pupils, at a rate of 6 classes for fifth grade / Sixth Primary number (4) schools from the Department of Maadi educational schools, in order to know how to activate practices and teaching skills in the classroom in the material studies Social for students in the fifth grade / sixth the primary.
The following questions about the interview took place:
A. What teaching practices and competencies circulating in the Chapter during class?
B) what your role in those practices and teaching skills, which fulfilled during class?
C) To what extent activation of practices and teaching skills in the classroom in Social Studies?
Through the questions that interview, the researcher suggested the following results:
A. confirmed rate (23.34%) of the study sample that have simple information about teaching practices and competencies circulating in the Chapter during class.
B) confirmed proportion (99%) of the study sample that simple their participation in those practices and teaching skills.
C) confirmed rate (95.11%) of the study sample twice to activate practices and teaching skills in the classroom in the Social Studies.
Second, research and previous studies Results
Many of those interested in the field have raised procedural research studies on this area confirms its importance, including:
): 1. Walid Yousef study (2015
And titled: “The impact of the use of public piers and directed learning in a web of social networks educational environment in the development of procedural research planning skills of graduate students, and the development of attitudes towards scientific research, and self-efficacy they have”.
It aimed to identify learning trusses type best suited (public, versus oriented, as opposed to both) in the social Web networks environment, and with regard to its impact in each of the development of the Research procedural planning skills of graduate students and the development of attitudes towards scientific research, and self-efficacy have, The research findings have resulted in no statistically significant differences at the level ≤ 0.05 between the mean scores of students of the three experimental groups in the evaluation of product card (plan to discuss procedural) and the measure of self-efficacy in students research sample, to Salj two groups: the first studied in the web social networking environment During Daammelt public learning, as well as the third group, which studied using trusses General and directed together learning compared to the second group studied through the pillars of learning directed only did differences between both public struts show, public struts and directed together at the same in the two variables followers of former, as well as the results indicated the lack of statistically significant differences at the level ≤ 0.05 between the mean scores of students of the three experimental groups due to the influence of the basic pillars of learning to type in all of the collection of knowledge related to the skill, and the direction of students towards scientific research.
): 2.Mohammed Khamis safety study (2009
It was titled: “Building a training program and measure its impact in the development of action research skills of social studies teachers”.
The study aimed to detect the effect of a training program in the development of research skills procedural among a sample of social studies teachers in the Educational Directorate of Irbid First, the study sample consisted of (15) a teacher of social studies teachers.
To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher developed a test to detect the level of social studies teachers in action research skills are of (50) items.
The study results indicated that the total score to test the knowledge of social studies teachers in action research skills and sub-grades for the same skill level has been below the level of proficiency.
) : 3. Louis Lim Louis Lim study (2007
It was titled: “sports writing on developing an understanding of the tenth grade subjects Applied Mathematics students: Search procedural effects”.
Goal Action Research Cooperative to test the effect of standard contact sports to collect tenth grade students in applied mathematics topics, where evolved the idea of seeking a collaborative effort, shared between a teacher of mathematics at the high school in Toronto (Canada) and a university professor in the University of North Carolina (USA), Many of the tools for data collection employment: the sheets daily (Journals), writing free (free-writing) and the conduct of life for students (math autobiography), the official clerical appointments, bags and performance (portfolio). Contributed to previous tools to emphasize the role of sports writing is to help students develop their understanding and attitudes towards mathematics, and the results showed that the students’ understanding has improved through the exercise of many diverse clerical activities, and those activities provided evidence on the evolution of skills and metacognitive. The research also showed that the students ‘resistance to free writing CVs own led to increase students’ awareness and thus improve their attitudes towards mathematics. And a conclusion has been through this research that the research of the kind of procedural action contributes to stimulate cooperative relations and improve educational practices and support the desired change.
Many studies have emphasized the importance of activating the procedural research for the treatment of the problems facing the teacher taught or during the performance of activities that must be performed.
Third, some of the recommendations of the Arab and international conferences:
Several conferences Egyptian and international projects and certainly the importance of the act Research (procedural) in addressing the problems of teaching the teacher is the most important of these conferences:
1. The Conference action research cope improve the profession of teaching efforts (2010 ):
Where the third annual conference of the College of Education / University of Qatar confirmed on :
– Promote the concept of lifelong learning, by offering cutting-edge research that provide experiences for teachers and serious ways and new applications within their ranks that free them from dependence on foreign culture.
. – The role of teachers actor in cognitive and creative development of the learners
– Communication between teachers is necessary because it will yield learning outcomes for our students in the schools.
– Scientific research provide teachers with new experiences and new ways seriousness and applications within their ranks that free them from dependence on foreign culture as the most dependent on internal capabilities available in schools, both the financial means or educational or even professional.
– Enable teachers of tools and research skills will enable them to transfer these skills to their students.
– Organizing training workshops for teachers in the field of scientific research and research and procedural allocation Prize for the best research procedurally.
2. The fourth annual conference of the search procedural (2012):
The conference stressed the enrichment of different teachers experience of professional practices and successful exchange these experiences with professional colleagues, as this conference said classroom teachers from kindergarten to twelfth grade and who have demonstrated interest in research and they want to expand the experiences and practices in order to improve school performance, to the stages of primary and lower secondary education , secondary and post-secondary, and also teachers and leaders in schools, who conducted the research.
Anyone who studies in the educational reality observed scarcity of procedural research, despite the significant role in the diagnosis of negative phenomena and to find appropriate solutions, there must be restoration of this research through outreach workers in the field of education – the teacher, the student, educational supervisor, the school principal – their importance but forums should be organized periodically to discuss whether the ministry or region or even school level, in order to reach a prompt and successful solutions to ensure the educational process in the course of walking.
It is during the previous measures taken by the researcher need to make sure that the teacher address the problems within his class and in particular the various teaching practices and competencies.

: Problem of the Study
Find a problem represented as follows :
Poor performance of teachers of fifth grade / sixth-primary schools in practices and teaching skills in the classroom during their performance in the share of social studies .

: Questions of the Study
Try searching to answer the following questions:
? 1. What happens now
? 2. How this is a problem that needs to be resolved
3. What practices and teaching skills which are made on a daily basis during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary ?
4. What activities they are exercised during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary?
5. What the Educational phenomena that drew your eyes during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary?
6. What did you learn and how you can apply what you have learned during the development work that way in solving the Educational problems you’ll meet during your work in the quota?

: Aims of the Study
Find goal to achieve the following:
1. identify the practices and modern teaching skills in the educational field in terms of what actually applied by the teacher in the classroom on the other hand.
2. development practices and teaching skills reflect by the teacher and review his performances in the classroom.
3. 3. verification of practices and the development of teaching skills among teachers of fifth and sixth grades Primary in teaching social studies.

: Significance of the Study
Search may be useful as follows:
1. Know the skills and practices and teaching skills as the overall behavior and the behavior of the teacher, which include knowledge, attitudes and skills when he performed the work efficiently and effectively.
2. teacher benefit by exploring teaching practices and teaching skills and attempts to improve them in the classroom.
3. emphasis on teaching skills and practices that were in the classroom during the teaching of social studies for students in the fifth grade / sixth the primary.

: Delimitation’s of the Study
Find committed to the following limits:
. 1. (2) a teacher of teachers of fifth and sixth grade
2. teaching competencies and skills needed.
. 3. Book social studies for grades fifth and sixth the primary

: Terminology of the Study
It has been defined search terms procedurally according to the following:
Action Research:
Intended in this research as “research process – applied, in which the researcher also be practiced (the teacher), and tries to use the research as a way to reflect in its activities and take appropriate decisions in order to improve performance”.
Competencies and skills teaching :
Intended in this research as “all the actions and behavior of social studies teachers Ba fifth and sixth grade primary, which includes knowledge, attitudes and skills during the educational situation this behavior is characterized by a high level of accuracy”.
: Method of the Study
Find follow the descriptive approach and quasi-experimental approach.
Procedures of The Study :
First, study and analysis of research and studies related to the subject of research, and through the following themes:
. 1. The nature and characteristics of the teacher in the primary school
2. Action Research: definition and afternoon when the term? , Important and why the act Research.
3. competencies educational teaching practices in the classroom in the decision of social studies for grades fifth and sixth the primary.
Second: the preparation of a number (5) research tools, which is about the daily notes, activities, log narrative, newspaper reflection and contemplation synthetic newspaper.
Third: Presenting the tools in the image on the initial set of arbitrators to make sure of the sincerity, and make adjustments in the light of their views to reach a final form of the tools.
Fourth: the class teacher by making an opinion on those cards and record his observations and his positions, which went through and what teaching practices and skills employed by classroom?
Fifth: Note and analysis of what has been codified again in those cards and reflect on the way to solve problems related to the educational domain, which emerged during those teaching positions.
. Sixth: data collection and statistical analysis and draw conclusions
Seventh: The interpretation of the results of research and discussion.
Eighth: recommendations of the research and research proposed in the light of the search results.

First, the theoretical framework

1. The nature and characteristics of the teacher in the primary school:
Psychological and educational research revealed that the teacher has an important role, especially at the primary level, and then it must be emphasized its growth characteristics and how he learned and gained experience, so the teacher must be characterized by a number of the following traits and characteristics (Richard Parson, 2005):
1. Knowledge of the scientific article studied.
2. Assistance to deliver course material and presented in a manner easy.
3. The ability to use appropriate teaching aids.
4. The ability to attract the attention of students during Thread Display.
5. Have the general culture.
6. it is characterized by balance and calm.
7. treatment of pupils well treated and affection for them.
8. The ability to take into account individual differences among students.
9. desire to teaching and his enthusiasm.
10. Be patient.
11. continuous access to scientific knowledge development in the article.
12. flexibility and non-discrimination for his opinion.
13. enthusiasm for teaching.
14. appropriate intelligence and agility.
15. Full understanding of the psychological foundations of learning.
16. cooperation and a desire to help others.
17. the ability to establish a good relationship with others.
18. In the absence of birth defects (especially pronunciation).
19. The ability to view ideas simple and easy way.
20. not to make fun of students errors.
21. maintain appointments.
22. justice and equality among students.
23. self-confidence.
24. that it is characterized by objectivity.
25. The ability to use the computer.
26. The ability to conduct research.
27. The applicant flag next to that teacher.

2. Action Research: definition and afternoon when the term? , Important and why the act Research?

First proposed the term: “Search procedurally in English,” is the Kurt Lewin Institute and so in 1944, where known activity as research comparative about the conditions and the effects of procedural social factors which lead to a change in these proceedings, relying on steps to spiral upward, all circular step include planning, then followed by the implementation and effectiveness of upward results, thus restoring those circular steps to the highest level so that we get in the end on the top of the results that address the problems of existing educational reality.
The thinking in the educational practices and contemplate them through action research, in order to raise the quality of learning, the most common in the recent period and acknowledged as a methodology research can enhance the development of supervisors through their studies to their practices in ways that lead to the improvement of educational strategies, is accredited methodology self hopes in order to achieve professional development.
The researcher must be prepared to take contrary to what he believes in attitude and values of the frequent and acceptable to society. Thus, the researcher offers new learning theories in the fields of knowledge unusual in specific learning areas.
The action research process during which practitioners study and meditation practices, to solve the real problems they face in their work, in order to rationalize and justice and to improve the educational and social practices and their understanding of the nature of the educational process and the environment and the circumstances and situations that are organized through them.
Action Research is defined as achieving an interactive balance between stylistic use of facts based on scientific assessment and method of thinking synergistic interaction between people in order to clarify the causes of the problems and thus finding practical solutions to problems and make it possible to visualize future changes required for institutions and individuals.

Research objectives and procedural functions
1. Find the procedural gives teachers and the general practitioners, educators, sense of power and self-confidence. When the teacher contribute in the search process, it takes advantage of them and this enhances self-confidence and make him feel a sense of control over situations and possibly the problems that it faces.
2. Action Research aims to develop a spirit of problem-solving and encourage scientific-oriented to resolve the practitioners in the field of education. “The fundamental value of the research lies in the procedural reality that believes that by providing fast to the problems that can not wait for theory to solve them.” (Haidar Abdel Latif, 2004).
3. It is also its functions, professional development for teachers and through:
. – Create opportunities for self-learning and continuous training
– Create professional personal contemplative and configure professional personal observation and tracked and committed.
Improve professional practice. –
– Improved performance in schools.
– The creation of a professional culture.
4. The action research aims primarily to improve business practices in a particular and specific environment field, but it has another purpose, no less important professional development of teachers, where acquires through which usually meditation (thinking any thinking systematic and deep) in his daily work, and acquire skills Find, initiative and cooperation and work with others (teamwork within the team) and in full compliance with the educational work in order to improve the performance and development of the school environment and increase the effectiveness and the achievement of the desired quality.

Find the procedural characteristics:
Action Research is characterized by a number of characteristics, including:
Action Research procedural realistic:-
It focuses on the process of facing the problems of workers, and possibly impose on them, the problems of the reality of daily practice in the classroom and school. The motives of this kind of research, usually originates from within the profession and through practice.

– Action Research specific procedural and a local deal with a certain phenomenon and focuses on the specific cases in time and space:
It is local in terms of the attention of researchers, which is influenced by the specificity of educational situations in classrooms and in the school is also affected by the specificity of the environment and the surrounding circumstances and the needs of local communities.
The action research deals with the problems appear in certain environments and specific circumstances and not phenomena and problems of public research.
Search participatory action research:-
Can be accomplished by one teacher but usually accomplished with the cooperation of his colleagues and with the participation of pupils and their parents, it can also be shared by more than one teacher in the framework of the team. It can be done by the Director of the Foundation with teachers and administrative cooperation.
Action Research procedural practical application:-
With the need to distinguish between him and applied scientific research, because the application in action research does not mean the application of theories or examine the possibility of its application, it means the development of procedures and their application and to draw conclusions and employment in directly in decision-making and problem-solving.
If the applied research focuses on testing theories and methods and dissemination of the results with the commitment pace of scientific research, the Action Research in the opposite applies in turn scientific-oriented but up to solve practical problems that occur in special situations, while applied scientific research does not claim to be directed to solve problems special education.

– Find the procedural type of survey:
Intended to extrapolate and continuous tracking Note to the reality of it is full of educational activity, and what is happening during the daily activity in classrooms and schools.
And it is a kind of meditation any deep thinking and re-thinking and self-return ticket and dialogue and debate, which is usually accompanied by steps Action Research.
The importance of action research:
The importance of action research in that it gives the opportunity to link theory and practice, where the researcher applied up to him directly and there is usually affected in action research and creates joining researcher case of cooperation in finding solutions, and this is what we do not see in other research which contributes to the promotion of cooperation frameworks, and the fact that the research problem is a problem the researcher and specific on the basis of his sense of the problem, this creates a strong impetus to the researcher to propose solutions in the research problem being basically his problem, and increases the capacity of researcher analytical and consciousness itself and thinking critic and develop the same contemplative, so the monitoring supervisors the problems they face, particularly in the supervision of the e-courses, and strategies that followed it to resolve these issues or what he described as any strategy followed it, inciting a difference in the learning of students through procedural research, lead to the dissemination of interest to the supervisor and develop professionally, as the impact of his fellow supervisors and turns and to the educational process the whole, as the results of this research significantly contribute to the development of the design and management process electronic courses (Ari Donald ,2004).

Problems experienced by the Educational Researcher:
Confined to the problems afflicting Educational Researcher (teacher) as follows:
– The need for policies and plans more clearly required by the research institutions.
– Lack of human skills to conduct research.
– Lack accurate information and the difficulty in obtaining them.
– The weakness of the link between educational research institutions.
– A continued focus on formal and public education.
– Lack of financial resources allocated.
– The need to conduct surveys for the development of educational research.
– Lack of training in educational research.
– Frequent own family social problems and lack of monitoring each other.
– The failure of the teacher to conduct research, but his role is limited to express his opinion has not taken his opinion.
– Fear of the reaction of the official authorities, which means not to publish some of the recommendations.

3. skills and teaching practices and educational classroom in social studies course for fifth grade Primary:

Sufficiency are: scientific knowledge article or acquire skills, it also means the individual’s ability to translate what they have learned in real life situations.
The areas of teacher competences, are:
1. mastery of the theoretical information about human learning and behavior.
2. mastery of information in the field of specialization who will teach.
3. possession of trends that contribute to accelerate learning, and the establishment of human relations at the school and improved.
4. mastery of specific teaching skills, which are the basis of contributing to the learning of pupils (Suhaila Mohsin Kazim, 2004).

Performing teaching skills:
It means the skill in teaching performance, including teaching skills planning and implementation, the skill in the implementation of teaching performance include the following:
First: the skill of classroom interaction:
1. Configuration and excitement.
2. Use of questions:
Questions should encourage thinking processes and information is not listed, and the best questions allowing divergent thinking, a thinking that leads to a saturated ideas, not the specific words of a narrow, usually starting questions that lead to divergent thinking Why? And how? The questions of when to start? And where? They lead to Convergent which produces narrow thinking and thinking information, or specific responses narrow.
3. The use of educational materials and devices: educational and is intended to rule any written material such as books, or audio on cassette tapes (voice) or visible such as recorded on video tapes, or slides, or transparencies, or fixed films, or photographers, etc.
4. vital Teacher: Lively intended his teacher and his varied to accomplish various tasks of teaching.
5. end the lesson: teaching position usually includes a variety of activities from the teacher and students, which means that the teacher that controls the time factor to move the course of this position, it suddenly ends without his will (Mohammed Eldridge, 2004).
Second: classroom management skills:
1. attention of current events.
2. how to handle pupils.
Third: Calendar Skills:
Educational Evaluation: wide process, concerned with measuring the output and evaluate educational results, and then try to remedy what may appear from the palaces.
1. Calendar planning programs.
2. Implementation Calendar program.
3. Organization of the evaluation results and summarized (Ibrahim Zohairy.2007).

Second: Search Procedures
1. Prepare Search Tools :
A. diary card:
The researcher has designed a daily diary card, the teacher write down his diary during his lessons for Land and his interaction with his disciples, it has been Arbitration card and appeared in the following final form:

B- activity card :
The researcher design activity card, the teacher write down the activities undertaken by and involving his disciples during the presentation of the lessons and the extent of their interaction with him, has been Arbitration card and appeared in the following final form:

C – narrative record card:
The researcher design narrative record card, where the teacher write down a description of the phenomenon or event he has done during his performance in the classroom or to perform an activity for students, explaining the reasons for what has happened, has been Arbitration card and appeared in the following final form:

D. newspaper reflection card:
The researcher has designed newspaper reflection synthetic card, where the teacher write down what I did during his performance in the teaching position, what the teacher feeling about what happened and why learn from this situation? , It has been Arbitration The card appeared in the following final form:

E – newspaper reflection synthetic card:
The researcher has designed newspaper reflection synthetic card, where the teacher write down what I did during his performance in the teaching situation, why learn from this situation? And how it can be applied to the teacher what he learned from this teaching positions?, It has been Arbitration card and appeared in the following final form:

2. search experience:
Was delivered five cards for a number (2) a teacher of social studies teachers in each of the fifth grade and sixth grade, during the second semester of the academic year 2014-2015 AD, and asked them to fill this data during and after the passage of various teaching positions and re-modify their behavior even benefit in the modification of practices and teaching skills and development needed to have, and a review of assistant researcher them when required.
Individual sample may ask questions related to these cards and how it relates to the practices of teaching and skills that are, has continued with the researcher and held several introductory sessions regarding this type of research, namely action research and explained to them that their role is not an adjunct, but is the role of researcher Educational procedural in the field and that of in order to address the Educational problems they face in their field, whether in the classroom or outside.
Those cards have been reported in the monitoring of educational fact practiced by the teacher, who’s No. 1 and No. teacher (2), and were trained to analyze those cards even get out of them by the occasion of the problems facing them.

Third: Find and interpret the results and discussion :
The researcher analyzed the results and draw experience Search for cards that were distributed to the research sample, namely, (2) social studies teacher for the fifth grade / sixth primary education, by answering the following questions :
? 1. What happens now
2. How this is a problem that needs to be resolved ?
3. What practices and teaching skills which are made on a daily basis during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary?
4. What activities they are exercised during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary?
5. What the Educational phenomena that drew your eyes during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary?
6. What did you learn and how you can apply what you have learned during the development work that way in solving the Educational problems you’ll meet during your work in a classroom?.

The answer to the first question which is: What happens now? By identifying the immediate practices for teachers research sample, and after they passed the daily notes that they write it down card, including, for example: “Li was a student distinctive morally and scientifically, but I noticed it in the recent period a change in his behavior, so I decided when I entered the quota that the fairest of his behavior so I decided punishment away from corporal punishment, so as not to talk to him and not to respond to any behavior or answer him and he went to his mother’s last day in tears sad and told her what had happened and then illness and went to the doctor and to know that I asked him very happy and promised that he would not return this behavior at all”.
This microcosm of what is happening in the classroom – all teaching practices – how to improve the teacher to act in such matters, His role is not just about indoctrination and access to brochures and homework, but goes beyond that to being solves parents shop and affects his disciples in the affirmative away from the not in education method.
The answer to your second question: how this is a problem that needs to be resolved? , Through a discussion between teachers, and how if the reaction was different from that, there were other spiritual and many other practices …? Is the student will respond to it or not ….., and through that problem teachers came out after consulting assistant researcher them and that all teachers take into account the behavior of the pupils within the school and share and treatment well treated and activating the role of reward and punishment.
The answer to the third question which is: what teaching practices and competencies which are made on a daily basis during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary?
Came the answer to this important to record the activities daily teacher body within the semester question to describe the teacher’s position teaching which includes teaching practices and competencies, which passes by the teacher during the teaching of social studies curriculum for grades V and VI Primary one Maadi management education schools, came one of those situations described as follows : “I asked my students silent reading for two minutes for someone to represent the personal role of” Ptolemy I, “and I’ve dialogue management anchor in an interview with the personal”.

Then came the comment on the situation as follows: “the attention of the students I spoke to you what a good personal evidenced by altering them to some mistakes, some students began to go to their colleagues with questions, asked pupils to do the rest of the representation of the rest of the lesson personalities”.
Which explains the need to change teaching practices of traditional form to the usual practices of teaching and other efficiencies make teaching more lively attitude and activity for pupils .

The answer to the fourth question which is: What activities they are exercised during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary?
It came the answer to this question in the form of documentation for the record narrative so that the teacher educational phenomenon that occurred during practices and teaching skills in the classroom and during share social studies is made has been stated in the description phenomenon follows: “During the application of a new strategy of teaching strategies, a professor expert strategy, I asked my students good preparation for the lesson to one of whom shall act as tour guide and another personal role itself, and the rest of the students will ask questions, to them”.
Has been interpreted the phenomenon as follows: “Subject initially appeared to be new to them and there was some kind of commotion, but when interventionist to guide them on how to ask questions and manage the dialogue between the students increased the attention of the pupils and increased share of splendor and vitality and quieter as well as out of respect for the opinion of the other and to remain silent when speaking colleagues then demanded the return of the strategy in next time”.
Which illustrates the need to separate management well during the share of Social Studies, and activating the role of students and their participation in the classroom and outside, so that not only their role in the conservation and memorization only for information, discussed the teacher the other fellow what was discussed at their share and exchange experiences and contacted Assistant researcher even ask about some of the practices and teaching skills The scientific explanation for a number of educational phenomena, has gained a lot both from that experience and indicated a willingness to help other teachers and how to overcome the difficulties facing them during the teaching positions and phenomena that hinder the work of each of them in the classroom or outside and in specialty social studies or even in many other disciplines.

The answer to the fifth question which is: What is the Educational phenomena that drew your eyes during the performance in the share of social studies for grades V and VI Primary?
It came to answer the question in the newspaper Photo reflection card, which has been divided into three areas, namely:
First: What happened?
The narrative follows the teacher: “During the explanation some noise occurred, and that while doing a play about the representation of the desert environment has led to a lack of performance of pupils for his role well.
The second axis: How do I feel about what happened?
The teacher listed the following issues: “I was upset, and I was afraid not to understand the role of pupils or lead to a false understanding of the information”.
Axis III: What have you learned from this situation?
And in which the teacher lists the following: “I decided to change the teaching method until it is brought to the attention of students, so I did replace the student without embarrassment was replaced another student place”.
– Which new roles for the teacher in the classroom teaching and practices developed by management constantly appears, His role here educator academic advisor to his disciples even apply it in their lives after graduation.
The answer to the question which is the sixth: What have you learned and how you can apply what you have learned during the development work that way in solving the Educational problems you’ll meet during your work in the quota?.
The answer came in the form of the question card in the name of “synthetic newspaper reflection”, where they were divided into three areas, namely:
First: What did you do?
And it documented for the teacher: “One of his disciples Mediterranean reward academic achievement and that giving him a certificate of appreciation in order to encourage him”.
The second axis: What have you learned?
And it documented the teacher: “that in recognition of his disciples Whatever their views and their level of academic which encouraged them to regularity and deliberation Subscribe to answer, even if they are wrong, even this has become a disciple of those who enroll in Social Studies”.
The third axis: How can I apply what I’ve learned?
And it documented the teacher: “to encourage other students those who are less in the collection on their answers or any activity they are doing or even if work was simple, because it increases their achievements have been creative in turning them to one day”.
Which shows the extent of development in the monitoring of those practices and teaching skills, development and so thinking and re-practice again for the pupils access to a higher level, and in order to be a teacher researcher educationally can solve the educational problems in the field without waiting for the results of academic research that fills the educational arena / Educational.
Supplement No. 1 shows the cards that were used in this research(*)
Recommendations and proposals

A- the study’s recommendations :
In light of the search results, the researcher suggested a set of recommendations that may help in search results to access the practical application of research in the field of procedural, and are presented below these recommendations:
1. The need to focus on the development of practices and teaching skills among primary teachers and primary education.
2. recognize leadership in the field of education of the importance of action research and monitoring of the budget for research and recruitment of research in the development of curricula and coordination between the research center and various school departments.
3. held training sessions for mentors, teachers and circulate Find the rest of the school results.
4. reduce the burden on the teacher to conduct such procedural research.
5. participation and cooperation of the school administration of social, psychological and the specialist, parents and pupils with the teacher researcher.

In the field of view of the formulation of the procedural research has been recommending the following:
. 1. Determine the general idea of the research: through audits daily contemplative practices
2. interpretation of the general idea of the search: and explore various aspects and imagine possible solutions.
: 3. building a general plan to search: The plan includes
– Detailed and accurate presentation of the idea to the general problem of the research.
– Diew and the statement of the factors that the researcher will be changed or modified to solve the problem and improve the situation.
– Identify resources needed for implementation and means.
– Determine the dialogue that the researcher with the parties involved to search for the distribution of roles and powers held by each one during implementation which.
– Identify the ethical framework that will govern dealing with information relating to research.
4. implementation of research and monitoring results: using methods and tools that have already been identified and includes these tools:
. – Diary of a teacher on the performance of his disciples
– Personal files that are monitoring student performance during a given period.
– The documentation and analysis of these documents action plans and papers tests.
– The use of an external observer.
– Specific or open interviews by the conduct of research level.
– Questionnaires and checklists.
– Analytical notes and records in which the researcher summary of his conception of the development and research purposes.
– A trio of action one way to ensure the safety of the collection of information and sincerity is done by comparing the data in terms of how different and consistency together.
– Photography and audio recording and video recording.
5- Evaluation of the results and modify practice in the light of the outcome of the application results.
6- Write a research report: researcher depends on the style case that rely on memos analytical study of the researcher, one of the most common in the writing of research reports procedural research methods, are important aspects that must appear in the research report include:
– How there was an idea to the researcher.
. – How to understand the evolution of the researcher and aware of the problem
. – What are the procedural steps taken by the
– What is the default implementation of the procedures established by the researcher to solve the problem.
– Intended and unintended changes that have occurred during the application and interpretation of their occurrence.
– Techniques that have been selected for data collection.
– The problems faced by the researcher during the application and how to overcome them.
– Ethical aspects encountered during the collection of information.

B. the proposed research :
1. The role of research in the configuration procedural skill development among teachers of first grade middle school.
2. improve the use of teaching aids in the subject of social studies teachers at sixth grade through procedural research.
3. Treatment aversion fourth grade pupils from Primary Social Studies activate procedural research.
4. The role of research in procedural skill use the map by social studies teachers, second grade preparatory development.
5. Study the reasons for the poor academic achievement in some subjects .
6. the phenomenon of students out of the quota.
7. Lack of attention during the study, such as chatter and inconvenience colleagues and hyperactivity.
8. cheating in exams.
9. not homework.
10- repeated failures to some students in the exam.
11. behavioral problems among students, such as lying, stealing, shyness, introversion.
12. Non-mile pupils to read and make use of the library.
13. Summer lack of interaction for some students with their superiority in the written tests.
14. non-participation of students in extra-curricular activities.
15. poor communication between the teacher and pupils.
16. the phenomenon of violence among students.

References :
1. Abdul Latif Hussein Haidar: Action Research among reflect on professional practice and improve, i (1), Dar Pen Publishing and Distribution, Dubai, United Arab Emirates ,2004.
2. Abdul Rahman bin Abdullah al-Zadjali: “academic compatibility aggressive behavior and its relationship to the tenth grade students in the Sultanate of Oman,” Master Thesis (unpublished), Department of Psychology, Faculty of Education, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat ,2005.
3. Ac.Kgoz, Firat : A Study on Teacher Characteristics and Their Effects on Students Attitudes, 2005, Retrieved April, 17,2015,erciyes@hacettepe.edu.tr
4. Action Research Conference cope improve the profession of teaching efforts, the Third Annual Scientific Conference, College of Education, Qatar University in collaboration with the Supreme Education Council of Qatar, in June 2010.
5. “Action Research”, the Fourth Annual Scientific Conference, College of Education, Qatar University in collaboration with the Supreme Education Council of Qatar, in June 2012.
6. http://www.qou.edu/newsletter/no_1/suba_F.jsp , Action Research ….. Why?
In: Sunday/ 10 May 2015 .
7. Ari Donald and others: “Introduction to Research in Education”, translation Saad al-Husseini, University Book House, Elien,2004.
8. Atkins, L & Wallace, S. : Qualitative Research in Education. London: Sage Publications, LTD, 2012.
9. Ghassan Youssef Kotaite: the computerization of teaching, the House of Culture for Publishing and Distribution, Amman, Jordan ,2011.
10. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZHvpgU7pc8 , Seen in : 15-4-2015.
11. Ibrahim Zuhairi: teacher preparation and rehabilitation at the University of Kentucky in the United States standards, the Faculty of Education, Helwan University, Egypt ,2007.
12. Louis Lim Louis Lim study (2007), entitled: “Effects of sports writing to develop an understanding of tenth grade students to topics of Applied Mathematics: Search procedural,” Visited on Sunday 17/5/2015:
Website URL:
http://www.yasni.info/ext.php?url=http%3A%2F%2Fisra.mam9.com%2Ft124-topic&name=%D8%B7%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%82+%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%8A&showads=1&lc=ar-sa&lg=ar&rg=ae&rip=eg
. 13. Mohammed Eldridge: “Introduction to Teaching”, publisher Dar University Book, Elien ,2004
14. Mohammed Salameh Khamis Bakheet: building a training program and measure its impact in the development of action research skills of social studies teachers, PhD thesis (unpublished), Faculty of Education, Yarmouk University, 2009.
15. Mohammed Jassim Mohammed al-Obeidi: individualized instruction, the House of Culture, Amman, Jordan ,2004.

16. Nabil Ali: “Arab culture and the information age: a vision for the future of the Arab cultural discourse”, the world of knowledge, the National Council for Culture, Arts and Letters, Kuwait,2001.
17. Parson Campbell and Richard Braun: “teacher, practitioner and researcher pensive procedural”, translated by Ali Rashid al-Hasnawi, publisher Dar University Book, Elien ,2005.
18. Reason & Bradbury, Handbook of Action Research (2) nd Edition. London: Sage, 2007. ISBN 978-1-4129-2029-2.
19. Sameh Province: “Teacher future: its characteristics, skills, Kvaiath”, Conference about the best investment for Educational and Psychological Sciences in the light of the challenges of the times, 25 – October 27, 2009, the Faculty of Education, University of Damascus, Syria.
20.Sana Ibrahim Abu accuracy and Pep Arafa: “General accreditation and quality assurance for teacher preparation programs: Arab and international experiences”, paper presented to the workshop titled: The relationship of complementarity between higher education and basic education: training programs and the preparation of teachers, the Islamic University of Gaza, Al-Quds University, 2007.
21- Smulyan, L.:” Collaborative action research : Historical trends” , Montreal: AERA, 1984.
22. Suhaila Kazem Mohsen al-Fatlawi: efficiencies of teaching social studies between theory and practice, the first edition, Sunrise House for Publishing and Distribution, Amman, Jordan ,2004 .
23. Wabour Ahlawat and others: “Applied Educational Research”, publications and the Ministry of Education, Muscat ,1995.
24. Walid Yousef Mohammed: “The impact of the use of public learning trusses and oriented in the web social networks educational environment in the development of procedural research planning skills of graduate students, and the development of attitudes towards scientific research, and self-efficacy have”, Journal of Arab Studies in Education and Psychology, which issued by the Association of Arab educators, No. 58, February 2015 .

عن عالم الثقافة

ناصر أبو عون - رئيس تحرير جريدة عالم الثقافة

شاهد أيضاً

الطريقة الأفضل للتواصل بين الثقافتين الفارسية والعربية

طهران | خاص أكد المترجم الإيراني أصغر علي كرمي على أن السبيل الأنجح لمد الجسور …

اترك تعليقاً

لن يتم نشر عنوان بريدك الإلكتروني. الحقول الإلزامية مشار إليها بـ *

%d مدونون معجبون بهذه: